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administration and meaning of management in nursing that help as lecture

WHAT IS MANAGEMENT?

-Management principles, techniques, functions

manager : who performs managerial activities and manage a group of persons

Process -Managerial activities -planning, organizing, staffing, directing, controlling.

Some definitions

•F.W. Taylor -“Art of knowing what you want to do and then seeing that it is done the best and cheepest way”.

•Henry –“To Manage is to forecast, to plan, to organize, to command, to co-ordinate and to control”.

•Peter F.Drucker –”Management is work and as such it has its own skills, its own tools and its own techniques”.

•“Management is the art of getting things done through and with people”.

We can define administration as:

“ The process of achieving defined goals at a defined time through the guidance, leadership, and control of the efforts of a group of individuals and the efficient utilization of non-human resources bearing in mind adequacy, speed, and economy to the highest possible level.”

Administration:

• Administration consists of the performance or management of business operations and thus the making or implementing of major decisions.

What is Management?

The process of getting things done, effectively and efficiently, through and with other people”

There are three levels of administration.

Traditionally classifications of managers are by level in the organizational hierarchy as :

1-Top Management

Formulation of policy, co-ordination, motivation of personnel such as board of directors, Presidents and vice presidents .

2-Middle Management

Formulation of policies to a lesser extent, co-ordination, motivation and planning control such as directors of nursing, supervisory staffs and department heads .

3-Lower Management

Supervision and control of day to day activities including administrative procedures. or supervisory management– such as head nurses and staffs.-

There are several elements for administration. In practice all these elements are interrelated to one another.

Elements of Administration ( management functions):

– Planning – Organizing – Staffing – Budgeting – leadership – Evaluation

The basic management skills :

1-Human skills.

Who understanding of the view points, attitudes, perceptions and beliefs of others and are skillful communicators. Supervisors with human skills are honest and open. they create an atmosphere in which others feel free to express their ideas and they make efforts to determine how intended actions will affect others in the organization

2-Technical skills.

Technical skills help to make procedures and how to repair utilizing precision equipment and tools. Technical skills are the essential to managers for several reasons. Their power over subordinates comes to them in part because of their technical competence.

3-Conceptual skills.

Knowledge and understanding of the total organizational system and the interrelationships between various subsystems and the ability to make decision based on knowledge.

Planning is considered the most important element of the administrative process. The higher level of administration who make plan. A good plan is the basis of any successful organization. Sufficient time should be given to the process of planning. More than one plan should be available to choose from to meet the existing plan.

Definition of Planning

“Planning is a projected or predetermined course of action designed to achieve a specific goal or objective.”

Planning determines what? When? Where? How? Why? And by whom? Things will be done.

So ,it is Formulation of Objectives, Policies, Procedure, Rules, standards according to the Budgets

Organizing:-Bringing people together and motivating them together in the pursuit of common objectives.

•Enumeration of activities, classification of activities, fitting individuals into functions, assignment of authority for action.

“The process of organization implies to the arrangement of human and non-human resources in an orderly fashion to make a meaningful whole that accomplishes organizational objectives.”

through the following steps:

Identifying the type and number of personnel

Recruitment Selection and appointment

Orientation Job analysis

Job description

Refers to the day-to-day relationship between an executive and his immediate subordinates.

Styles of leader authority:

a. Autocratic leader

b. Democratic leader

c. Free rein leader

d. Transformational leader

e. Transactional leader

“systemic collection of information about the activities, characteristics and outcomes of work, personnel, and products to reduce uncertainties, improve effectiveness and make decision regard personnel or products are doing and affecting.”

CHARACTERISTICS OF MANAGEMENT

1)Is a Process /a function.

2)Is a Social Process.

3)Involves Group Effort.

4)Aims at achieving predetermined objectives.

5)Required at all levels of management

6)Is a Profession

7)Is comprised of following functions: •Planning •Organizing •Directing •Controlling •Co-ordination

8)Is an art and science.

FUNCTIONS OF MANAGEMENT

Planning

•Look ahead and chart out future course of operation

•Formulation of Objectives, Policies, Procedure, Rules, Programmed and Budgets

Organizing

•Bringing people together and tying them together in common objectives.

•Enumeration of activities, classification of activities, fitting individuals into functions, assignment of authority for action.

Directing

•Act of guiding, overseeing and leading people.

•Motivation, leadership, decision making.

Controlling

•Arranging standards, comparing actual and correcting deviation-achieve objectives according to plans.

Co-ordination

•Synchronizing and unifying the actions of a group of people.

I. Different

Administration: Is the application of the art and science of management to the discipline of nursing

Management : It is the process relates to planning, organization , staffing , directing and controlling the

activities of nursing enterprise or division of nursing departments and of the sub units of departments

Management as an art starts where science leaves off. Science deals with the measurable, calculable and predictable, but when management extends beyond these parameters, which it does in any busy day, art comes into play. Art is the ability to sense a situation, to respond to its mature and demands in terms of the inner or intuitive senses, which are capable of handing intangibles, rather than assessing by reason, analysis and logic.

The art of management may be perceived a relating to one’s personality. It requires certain qualities that can be learned, developed and brought into balance by one’s experience as his character matures, develops and becomes rounded out and integrated. Education, training and practice help

Four elements of planning

1. Diagnose Problems

2. Find most promising solutions

3. Analyze and compare alternatives

4. Select best plan

Basic Structural Concepts

The basic concepts related to the structural element of organizing are unity of command, extent of command, homogenous assignment and assignment of responsibility with delegation of authority. As these concepts are understood and practiced, a sound, strong and workable organizational structure can develop.

Unity of Command

According to Ross, unity of command means that the final responsibility for and control of all actions directed to ward the goals of an organization are vested in one person at each level of operation. This concept concerns it self with people and their interactions and with operating patterns and procedures. It establishes a definite chain of management echelons. At the same time it serves as a means of control by ensuring and protecting the unified system of procedure directives and orders. It becomes identical with managing a workable system, with making provision for it and with being accountable for its smooth operation.

Span of Control The extent of command concept involves the relationship that may exist between a nurse director and the staff she holds responsible for the performance of specific acts. It is based upon the restrictions that she imposes upon the span of her activities. These limits are divided into three parts: span of control of individuals, of distance and of time. Span of control is sometimes defined as a set of abstract rules and generalizations regarding the number of people a given person may supervise and how much space he can cover. The specific conditions in a given situation will decide the procedural setup and the procedural setup will in turn determine the span of control.

How many individuals can one person effectively control? In the view of some writers, the optimums number of personnel reporting to one supervisor should be five or six. Modern’s writers have challenged the belief. They contend that the span of control can vary, with wide limits, depending upon such factors as the personality of the manager, the complexity of the work, the level of competence of the subordinates; the geographical dispersion of the employees and the closeness of control exercised.

A narrow span of control permits the manger to exert very close control over his staff. He can make most of their decisions for them. Those who favor rigid control tend to utilize a narrow span.

On the other hand, a wide span of control requires that the employees make their own decisions. They are given more freedom and latitude. A wide span of control encourages general supervision and if it is to be effective, employees must be well prepared to perform on their own.

Homogenous Assignment Homogenous assignments are those functions essential to the accomplishment of organizational objectives. They are grouped according to the closeness of their relationships to one another. Applying this concept calls for the use of a goodly amount of judgment, specially where the skills needed are not equal to those available. Consideration must be given to integrating related activities as opposed to the advantages of strict organization by function.

Delegation

From an organizational point of view, delegation means that when a job gets too big part of it must be entrusted to someone else. The difficulty lies in identifying what part of the job can best be passed along. How can other

people be encouraged to accept willingly the additional tasks and how can one keep an efficient check on the delegated work being done

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